GRANTING OF A CONSTITUTION 501 intensified by the retrograde policy and oppressive rule of :he Ayn-u-Dola, whose career is referred to below. This ;ombination of circumstances brought about a popular movement for the dismissal of the obnoxious Minister, ivhich according to Persian precedent took the form of sitting in bast, or sanctuary ; and the demand for a con- stitution, inspired by a few Persians with European education, was gradually formulated.1 Sayyid Jamal-u-Din.—The founder of the movement was a certain Sayyid Jamal-u-Din. This remarkable man was the son of a village Sayyid of no position and was born in 1838 .near Hamadan. After being educated at Najaf, he resided for some years in Afghanistan and adopted the title of "The Afghan," He travelled and taught in India, in Egypt, and elsewhere, and at one time settled in Constantinople. There he pretended to be a Sunni and gained fame as an eloquent and learned doctor of law. He was, however, accused of infidelity by the Shaykh-ul-Islamy the leading religious official in Turkey, and was obliged to leave the city. His connexion with Nasir-u-Din was brought about through the deep impression made upon the Shah by certain articles which he wrote for an Arabic newspaper whose title may be translated " The Indissoluble Link." He was summoned to Persia and made a member of the Royal Council, and his opinion carried great weight with the sovereign. This state of affairs naturally aroused the jealousy of the Amin-u-Sultan, who induced the Ottoman Ambassador to press for his deportation. Knowing that the word " law " was obnoxious to the Shah, he stated that the Sayyid had caused disturbances by advocating the adoption of fixed laws, and had been expelled from India, Egypt, and Turkey, He gave it as his opinion that it would be dangerous to retain in Persia a man with such revolutionary ideas. The Shah agreed, and Jamal- u-Din was instructed to quit the country and travel. He again met Nasir-u-Din in Europe during that monarch's third journey; and the Shah, thinking him 1 Very few Persians understood what a constitution meant, and during the crisis a British official was reproached in the following terms: " We have sat in bast three days, and yet you have not given us * Constitution'!"